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Extendable multirate real-time simulation of active distribution networks based on field programmable gate arrays

Wang, Zhiying, Wang, Chengshan, Li, Peng, Fu, Xiaopeng, Wu, Jianzhong
Applied energy 2018 v.228 pp. 2422-2436
algorithms, energy, equations, solar energy
Real-time simulation of large-scale active distribution networks exhibiting a wide range of time-scales puts forward higher requirements for simulation accuracy and efficiency. This paper presents an extendable method and design for the real-time simulation of active distribution networks utilising high-performance hardware field programmable gate arrays. In the aspect of numerical algorithm, a high-accuracy and stable multirate simulation algorithm is proposed. The entire active distribution network is decoupled into different subsystems by their inherent time-scales and distinct time steps are used to solve the subsystems. Then root-matching method is adopted to form the exponential difference equations that represent the behaviours of the electric distribution network being modelled, which eliminates the truncation errors and thus provides a highly accurate time-domain solution. To handle the interface between the subsystems, a multirate interfacing method is proposed. The hardware design of the multirate interfaces is presented as well. With the multirate algorithm, a fully functional extendable real-time simulator based on field programmable gate arrays is designed and implemented. Two modified IEEE 33-node systems with photovoltaics and energy storage are simulated on the 4-field-programmable-gate-arrays-based real-time simulator. Simulation results are compared with the commercial simulation tool PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method and design.