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Effect of Spanish-style processing steps and inoculation with Lactobacillus pentosus starter culture on the volatile composition of cv. Manzanilla green olives

de Castro, Antonio, Sánchez, Antonio Higinio, Cortés-Delgado, Amparo, López-López, Antonio, Montaño, Alfredo
Food chemistry 2019 v.271 pp. 543-549
Lactobacillus pentosus, acetic acid, alkali treatment, esters, ethanol, fermentation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, headspace analysis, odors, olives, phenol, sensory evaluation, solid phase microextraction, starter cultures, volatile compounds
The effects of the main steps of Spanish-style processing (alkaline treatment and fermentation) on the volatile composition of cv. Manzanilla green olives were studied. Both spontaneous and controlled fermentations were considered. In the latter case, a Lactobacillus pentosus strain from green olive fermentation brine was used as starter culture. The volatile profile was determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Most of the volatile compounds detected in fresh olives decreased or were undetected after alkaline treatment, while several compounds (mostly acetic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, and ethanol) were formed as a result of this treatment. Over 50 new volatile components, mostly esters and phenols, appeared as a result of fermentation. The most outstanding finding was a considerable increase in 4-ethyl phenol (almost 100-fold increase) in inoculated olives compared to the uninoculated product. However, a sensory panel did not find significant differences in odor perception.