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Ancillary Services Bidding for Uncertain Bidirectional V2G Using Fuzzy Linear Programming
- Faddel, Samy, Aldeek, A., Al-Awami, Ali T., Sortomme, Eric, Al-Hamouz, Zakariya
- Energy 2018 v.160 pp. 986-995
- algorithms, batteries, electric vehicles, electricity, energy, linear programming, markets, prices, profits and margins, uncertainty
- The operation of bidirectional V2G participating in ancillary services markets is particularly challenging due to various uncertainties. This work proposes an algorithm to optimize the uncertain operation of bidirectional V2G for an electric vehicle (EV) aggregator. The proposed algorithm maximizes the profits of the aggregator while providing additional system flexibility and low charging costs to the EV owners. The proposed algorithm considers electricity market and EV mobility uncertainties using fuzzy linear programming. These uncertainties include those of the regulation and responsive reserve prices, deployment signals, and the energy used for EV trips. Unlike other works in the literature, the proposed algorithm is capable of considering a large number of uncertain parameters without greatly impacting the problem's complexity or simulation time. Also, the algorithm does not result in conservative solutions. The simulation results show the superiority of the proposed fuzzy algorithm over its deterministic counterpart in terms of higher realized profits. Also, the proposed approach results in lower real-time penalties, which ensures its superiority to provide the EVs with the required trip energy at the required time. In addition, it results in lower battery degradation costs, which helps increase the life time of the EVs.