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Identification of microRNAs involved in cold adaptation of Litopenaeus vannamei by high-throughput sequencing

He, Pingping, Wei, Pinyuan, Zhang, Bin, Zhao, Yongzhen, Li, Qiangyong, Chen, Xiuli, Zeng, Digang, Peng, Min, Yang, Chunling, Peng, Jinxia, Chen, Xiaohan
Gene 2018 v.677 pp. 24-31
Litopenaeus vannamei, acclimation, fatty acids, gene expression regulation, gene ontology, hepatopancreas, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, metabolism, microRNA, muscle tissues, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, shrimp, temperature
The Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) is one of the most widely cultured shrimp species in the world, with low temperature being one of the most serious threats to its growth and survival. To examine the potential regulatory mechanism of cold adaptation, we conducted a microRNAs (miRNAs) analysis on the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei under normal temperature 28 °C (M28), cold acclimation 16 °C for 6 days (M16), and recovered under normal temperature (MR). In total 14,754,823, 14,945,246 and 15,880,093 raw reads representing 10,690,259, 8,587,144, and 11,512,941 unique sequences of 18–32 nt length were obtained from the M28, M16 and MR libraries, respectively. After comparing the miRNA sequences with the miRBase database, 68 known mature miRNAs and 47 novel miRNAs were identified. Expression analysis showed that 34 miRNAs were significantly differential expressed in response to cold adaptation. Compared to the M28 library, 21 miRNAs were upregulated and 13 miRNAs were downregulated significantly in the M16 library. After recovery to normal temperature, there are 16 miRNAs upregulated and 15 miRNAs downregulated significantly compared to M28 library.Then, five significantly differential expressed miRNAs under cold acclimation including three known miRNAs (mja-miR-6491, mja-miR-6494, and Bta-miR-2478) and two newly-identified miRNAs (novel_68 and novel_5) were selected for validation by RT-qPCR in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissues of cold treated shrimps. The expression trend of most the miRNAs from RT-qPCR were consistent with the next-generation sequencing data. Further, the Gene Ontology (GO) annotation showed that the metabolic process GO term was significantly enriched with target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. Additionally, KEGG pathway analysis suggested that the fatty acid degradation and glycerolipid metabolism pathways etc. are significantly enriched with the target genes. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the responses to low temperature in L. vannamei.