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Comparative epidemiology of E. coli resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in diseased food-producing animals

Bourély, Clémence, Chauvin, Claire, Jouy, Éric, Cazeau, Géraldine, Jarrige, Nathalie, Leblond, Agnès, Gay, Émilie
Veterinary microbiology 2018 v.223 pp. 72-78
Escherichia coli, World Health Organization, animal health, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, calves, cephalosporins, data collection, ducks, epidemiology, food animals, hens, humans, infectious diseases, monitoring, piglets, public policy, sows, therapeutics, time series analysis, turkeys
Categorized by WHO as critically important antibiotics, third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) are one of the latest therapeutic alternatives to fight severe infectious diseases in humans. Some antibiotics belonging to this class are prescribed to treat food-producing animals in specific pathological contexts. Preserving the effectiveness of 3GCs requires characterization and careful monitoring of 3GCs resistance and the identification and implementation of measures that can limit this antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Here, we characterized the 3GCs resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from diseased animals. Using data collected from broilers, hens, calves, piglets, sows, turkeys and ducks between 2006 and 2016 by the French surveillance network of AMR in pathogenic bacteria of animal origin (called RESAPATH), we investigated the dynamics of resistance to 3GCs. Our non-linear analysis applied to time series showed that the evolution of E. coli resistance to 3GCs is specific to each animal category. From 2006 to 2010, resistance to 3GCs increased for most animal categories. We observed peaks of high-level of resistance for hens (21.5% in 2010) and broilers (26.7% in 2011), whereas trends stayed below 10% for the other animal categories throughout the study period. Resistance later decreased and, since 2014, 3GCs resistance has dropped below 10% for all animal categories. The parallel between trends and measures to limit AMR over the period shed lights on the impact of practices changes, public policies (EcoAntibio Plan) and sector-led initiatives (moratorium in swine sector). Finally, they highlight the usefulness and importance of AMR surveillance networks in animal health, such as RESAPATH.