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ω-3 and folic acid act against depressive-like behavior and oxidative damage in the brain of rats subjected to early- or late-life stress

Réus, Gislaine Z., Maciel, Amanda L., Abelaira, Helena M., de Moura, Airam B., de Souza, Thays G., dos Santos, Thais R., Darabas, Ana Caroline, Parzianello, Murilo, Matos, Danyela, Abatti, Mariane, Vieira, Ana Carolina, Fucillini, Vanessa, Michels, Monique, Dal-Pizzol, Felipe, Quevedo, João
Nutrition 2018 v.53 pp. 120-133
acetylcysteine, adults, antidepressants, antioxidant activity, brain, catalase, enzyme activity, folic acid, forced swimming test, life events, lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase, nitrates, nitrites, omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, protocols, rats, superoxide dismutase
To investigate the antidepressant and antioxidant effects of omega-3, folic acid and n-acetylcysteine (NAC) in rats which were subjected to early or late life stress.Early stress was induced through maternal deprivation (MD), while late life stress was induced using the chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol. Young rats which were subjected to MD and the adult rats which were subjected to CMS were treated with omega-3 fatty acids (0.72 g/kg), NAC (20 mg/kg) or folic acid (50 mg/kg) once/day, for a period of 20 days. Then, the animals' immobility times were evaluated using the forced swimming test. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in the brain.Depressive-like behavior induced by CMS was prevented by NAC and folic acid, and depressive-like behavior induced by MD was prevented by NAC, folic acid and omega-3. NAC, folic acid and omega-3 were able to exert antioxidant effects in the brain of rats subjected to CMS or MD. These preventive treatments decreased the levels of protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, and also decreased the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase activity in the rat brain which was induced by CMS or MD. NAC, folic acid and omega-3 increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the rat brain subjected to early or late life stress.NAC, omega-3 and folic acid may present interesting lines of treatment based on their antioxidant properties, which cause an inhibition of behavioral and brain changes that occur from stressful life events.