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Grandiflorenic acid promotes death of promastigotes via apoptosis-like mechanism and affects amastigotes by increasing total iron bound capacity
- Bortoleti, Bruna Taciane da Silva, Gonçalves, Manoela Daiele, Tomiotto-Pellissier, Fernanda, Miranda-Sapla, Milena Menegazzo, Assolini, João Paulo, Carloto, Amanda Cristina Machado, de Carvalho, Priscila Goes Camargo, Cardoso, Ian Lucas Alves, Simão, Andréa Name Colado, Arakawa, Nilton Syogo, Costa, Idessania Nazareth, Conchon-Costa, Ivete, Pavanelli, Wander Rogério
- Phytomedicine 2018
- Leishmania amazonensis, Sphagneticola trilobata, amastigotes, antileishmanial properties, chromatography, cytotoxicity, death, diterpenoids, drugs, erythrocytes, interleukin-10, iron, leishmaniasis, macrophages, mitochondria, parasites, permeability, phosphatidylserines, plasma membrane, promastigotes, sheep, therapeutics, transferrin, zoonoses
- American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The high toxicity, high costs and resistance of some strains to current drugs has prompted the search for therapeutic alternatives for the management of this disease. Sphagneticola trilobata is a plant that has diterpenes as main constituents, including grandiflorenic acid (GFA) that has antiinflammatory, antiprotozoal, antibacterial and antinociceptive activity.The aim of our study was to determine the effect of GFA on both the promastigotes and the amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis.Isolation by chromatographic methods and chemical identification of GFA, then evaluation of the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of this compound against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and L. amazonensis infected peritoneal Balb/c macrophages, as well its action and microbicide mechanisms.GFA treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of promastigotes. This antiproliferative effect was accompanied by morphological changes in the parasite with 25 nM GFA. Afterwards, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the death of the protozoan; there was an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phosphatidylserine exposure, permeabilization of the plasma membrane and decreased mitochondrial depolarization. In addition, we observed that the treatment caused a reduction in the percentage of infected cells and the number of amastigotes per macrophage, without showing cytotoxicity in low doses to peritoneal macrophages and sheep erythrocytes. GFA increased IL-10 and total iron bound to transferrin in infected macrophages. Our results showed that GFA treatment acts on promastigote forms through an apoptosis-like mechanism and on intracellular amastigote forms, dependent of regulatory cytokine IL-10 modulation with increase in total iron bound to transferrin.GFA showed in vitro antileishmanial activity on L. amazonensis promastigotes forms and on L. amazonensis-infected macrophages.