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Renoprotective effect of Spirulina platensis extract against nicotine-induced oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in rats

Zahran, Walid E., Emam, Manal A.
Phytomedicine 2018 v.49 pp. 106-110
Arthrospira platensis, antioxidants, apoptosis, biomarkers, caspase-3, creatinine, enzyme activity, epithelium, glutathione, glutathione transferase, histopathology, inflammation, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, necrosis, nicotine, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, pathogenesis, peroxidation, poisoning, protein synthesis, rats, renal function, renal tubules, renoprotective effect, toxicity, transcription factor NF-kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, urea
Nicotine is an important factor in the pathogenesis of renal injury in smokers.The purpose of the present study was to investigate the renoprotective effect of Spirulina platensis extract (SP) against chronic nicotine administration in rats.Nicotine intoxication was induced with 0.5 mg/kg BW. Rats received 500 mg SP/kg BW by gastric gavage over 4 weeks.Our data revealed that nicotine induced renal dysfunction manifested by significant abnormal levels of kidney function markers (creatinine and urea) accompanied by increased levels of oxidative stress biomarker (malondialdehyde) and inflammatory markers (nitric oxide, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) while antioxidant status as glutathione level and glutathione S-transferase activity were found to be decreased significantly as compared with controls. It is worthy to note that nicotine toxicity induced significant increments in the protein expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B as well as caspase-3. Histopathological observations showed tubular necrosis and congestion in the endothelial lining glomerular tuft and epithelial lining renal tubules with nicotine intoxication. Interestingly, our data demonstrated that SP supplementation significantly improved the nicotine-induced kidney dysfunction, alleviated the induced-lipid peroxidation, inflammatory, apoptotic protein markers, and boosted the enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants. Moreover, it attenuated the nicotine-induced histopathological alterations of the kidney architecture.Thus, it is tempting to recommend dietary approaches with Spirulina platensis extract for smokers to minimize the deleterious effect of chronic nicotine consumption and smoke exposure-related problems towards kidney injury via the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties of Spirulina platensis.