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An insight into the ecobiology, vector significance and control of hyalomma ticks (acari: ixodidae): a review

Sajid, M.S., Kausar, A., Iqbal, A., Abbas, H., Iqbal, Z., Jones, M.K.
Acta tropica 2018
Bacillus thuringiensis, Hyalomma, Nematoda, Protozoa, acaricide resistance, bacteria, biological control, blood flow, climate, disease vectors, endotoxins, engorgement, enzootic diseases, females, habitats, human population, immune response, livestock, proteins, risk factors, saliva, serotypes, temperature, tick control, ticks, viruses
Ticks (Acari:Ixodoidea) are important ectoparasites infesting livestock and human populations around the globe. Ticks can cause damage directly by affecting the site of infestation, or indirectly as vectors of a wide range of protozoa, bacteria and viruses which ultimately lead to lowered productivity of livestock populations. Hyalomma is a genus of hard ticks, having more than 30 species well-adapted to hot, humid and cold climates. Habitat diversity, vector ability, and emerging problem of acaricidal resistance in enzootic regions typify this genus in various countries around the world. This paper reviews the epidemiology, associated risk factors (temperature, climate, age, sex, breed etc.), vector role, vector-pathogen association, and reported control strategies of genus Hyalomma. The various proteins in saliva of Hyalomma secreted into the blood stream of host and the prolonged attachment are responsible for the successful engorgement of female ticks in spite of host immune defense system. The various immunological approaches that have been tried by researchers in order to cause tick rejection are also discussed. In addition, the novel biological control approaches involving the use of entomo-pathogenic nematodes and Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) serovar thuringiensis H14; an endotoxin, for their acaricidal effect on different species and life cycle stages of Hyalomma are also presented.