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Field trial to evaluate the effect of an intranasal respiratory vaccine protocol on calf health, ultrasonographic lung consolidation, and growth in Holstein dairy calves
- Ollivett, T.L., Leslie, K.E., Duffield, T.F., Nydam, D.V., Hewson, J., Caswell, J., Dunn, P., Kelton, D.F.
- Journal of dairy science 2018 v.101 no.9 pp. 8159-8168
- Bovine orthopneumovirus, Holstein, antigens, average daily gain, bovine viral diarrhea, calving ease, confidence interval, dairy calves, field experimentation, herds, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, lungs, pneumonia, protocols, regression analysis, ultrasonography, vaccination, vaccines
- The objective of this field trial was to evaluate the effect of a vaccine protocol using a commercially available trivalent vaccine designed for intranasal use. Experimental challenge studies have demonstrated varying efficacies of vaccines administered via the intranasal route. A total of 468 calves from 3 herds were enrolled and randomized into 3 treatment groups (positive control, PC, n = 211; intranasal vaccine, IN, n = 215; negative control, NC, n = 42) and followed for 8 to 12 wk. The PC consisted of one dose of commercially available multivalent injectable vaccine against bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, and bovine viral diarrhea administered subcutaneously at 6 wk of age. The IN was administered at enrollment and 6 wk of age, and contained antigen against bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and parainfluenza 3. The NC was sterile saline administered intranasally and subcutaneously at enrollment and 6 wk of age. Clinical illness was assessed using systematic respiratory scoring, and thoracic ultrasonography was used to identify the lung consolidation associated with pneumonia. Rib fractures were identified in 6% of calves, and an association was observed between rib fractures and calving ease. Overall, 54% of the calves had at least one episode of an abnormal respiratory score (ILL). Vaccination protocol did not affect the occurrence of ILL. Similarly, 54% of the calves had at least one episode of lung consolidation ≥3 cm (CON). Vaccine protocol affected the odds of CON. The odds of CON in PC were 1.63 (95% confidence interval: 1.04–2.56) times the odds of CON in IN, and 0.38 (95% confidence interval: 0.16–0.93) times the odds of CON in NC. The odds of CON in IN were 0.23 (95% confidence interval: 0.09–0.59) times the odds of CON in NC. The outcomes ILL and CON were associated; however, the measure of agreement was only fair (kappa = 0.38). Multivariable linear regression revealed an interaction between vaccine protocol and herd on average daily gain (ADG); therefore, these data were stratified. In herd 1, IN (0.53 ± 0.03 kg/d) decreased ADG compared with PC (0.63 ± 0.03 kg/d). In herd 2, IN increased ADG (0.41 ± 0.03 kg/d) compared with PC (0.38 ± 0.03 kg/d). In contrast, none of the protocols affected ADG at herd 3. In conclusion, this commercially available trivalent IN vaccine protocol did not alter the incidence of ILL, reduced the risk of lung lesions associated with pneumonia, and improved the ADG of the calves in one of the commercial study herds.