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Dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids suppressed the mobilization of body fat reserves in dairy cows at early lactation through different pathways

Qin, Nanbing, Bayat, Ali-Reza, Trevisi, Erminio, Minuti, Andrea, Kairenius, Piia, Viitala, Sirja, Mutikainen, Mervi, Leskinen, Heidi, Elo, Kari, Kokkonen, Tuomo, Vilkki, Johanna
Journal of dairy science 2018 v.101 no.9 pp. 7954-7970
3-hydroxybutyric acid, Helianthus annuus, Toll-like receptor 4, adipophilin, adipose tissue, blood, body weight changes, carboxylic ester hydrolases, ceramides, conjugated linoleic acid, dairy cows, dry matter intake, early lactation, energy balance, fatty acid-binding proteins, fish oils, free fatty acids, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, inflammation, insulin, insulin resistance, lactose, lipid content, lipogenesis, lipolysis, mammary glands, milk, milk fat, milk fat yield, milk proteins, mitochondria, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein kinases, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, serine C-palmitoyltransferase, transcription (genetics)
To investigate the metabolic changes in the adipose tissue (AT) of dairy cows under milk fat depression (MFD), 30 cows were randomly allocated to a control diet, a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-supplemented diet, or a high-starch diet supplemented with a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (2:1; as HSO diet) from 1 to 112 d in milk. Performance of animals, milk yield, milk composition, energy balance, and blood metabolites were measured during lactation. Quantitative PCR analyses were conducted on the AT samples collected at wk 3 and 15 of lactation. The CLA and HSO diets considerably depressed milk fat yield and milk fat content at both wk 3 and 15 in the absence of significant changes in milk protein and lactose contents. In addition, the HSO diet lowered milk yield at wk 15 and decreased dry matter intake of cows from wk 3 to 15. Compared with the control, both CLA and HSO groups showed reduced body weight loss, improved energy balance, and decreased plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate at early lactation. The gene expression analyses reflected suppressed lipolysis in AT of the CLA and HSO groups compared with the control at wk 3, as suggested by the downregulation of hormone-sensitive lipase and fatty acid binding protein 4 and the upregulation of perilipin 2. In addition, the HSO diet promoted lipogenesis in AT at wk 15 through the upregulation of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, perilipin 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The CLA diet likely regulated insulin sensitivity in AT as it upregulated the transcription of various genes involved in insulin signaling, inflammatory responses, and ceramide metabolism, including protein kinase B2, nuclear factor κ B1, toll-like receptor 4, caveolin 1, serine palmitoyltransferase long chain base subunit 1, and N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase 1. In contrast, the HSO diet resulted in little or no change in the pathways relevant to insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, the CLA and HSO diets induced a shift in energy partitioning toward AT instead of mammary gland during lactation through the regulation of different pathways.