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Cheese yield, cheesemaking efficiency, and daily production of 6 breeds of goats
- Vacca, Giuseppe M., Stocco, Giorgia, Dettori, Maria L., Summer, Andrea, Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio, Bittante, Giovanni, Pazzola, Michele
- Journal of dairy science 2018 v.101 no.9 pp. 7817-7832
- Murcia-Granada, Saanen, breeding programs, casein, cheesemaking, dairy goats, energy, farms, fresh cheeses, goat milk, lactation, lactose, lipid content, milk, milk quality, milk yield, models, nutrients, pH, plate count, somatic cells, total solids
- Little is known about the complex process of cheesemaking at the individual level of dairy goats because of the difficulties of producing a high number of model cheeses. The objectives of this work were (1) to study the cheesemaking ability of goat milk; (2) to investigate the variability of cheesemaking-related traits among different farms; (3) to assess the effects of stage of lactation and parity; and (4) to compare 6 breeds of goat (Saanen and Camosciata delle Alpi for the Alpine type; Murciano-Granadina, Maltese, Sarda and Sarda Primitiva for the Mediterranean type) for their cheesemaking ability. For each goat (n = 560) we studied (1) 8 milk quality traits (fat, protein, total solids, casein, lactose, pH, somatic cell score, and bacterial count); (2) 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in curd; (3) 3 actual cheese yield traits (fresh cheese, cheese solids, and cheese water); (4) 2 theoretical cheese yield values (fresh cheese and cheese solids) and the related cheesemaking efficiencies; and (5) daily milk yield and 3 daily cheese yield traits (fresh cheese, cheese solids, and water retained in the curd). With respect to individual animal factors, farm was not particularly important for recovery traits or actual and theoretical cheese yield and estimates of efficiency, whereas it highly influenced daily productions. Parity of goats influenced daily cheese production, whereas DIM slightly affected recovery as well as percent and daily cheese yield traits. Breed was the most important source of variation for almost all cheesemaking traits. Compared with those of Alpine type, the 4 Mediterranean breeds had, on average, lower daily milk and cheese productions, greater actual and theoretical cheese yield, and higher recovery of nutrients in the curd. Among Alpine type, Camosciata delle Alpi was characterized by greater nutrients recovery than Saanen. Within the 4 Mediterranean types, the 3 Italians produced much less milk per day, with much more fat and protein and greater recovery traits than the Murciano-Granadina, resulting in greater actual cheese yield. Within the Italian breeds, milk from Sarda and Sarda Primitiva was characterized by lower daily yields, higher protein and fat content, and greater recoveries of nutrients than Maltese goats. These results confirmed the potential of goat milk for cheese production and could be useful to give new possibilities and direction in breeding programs.