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Bioaccumulation of cadmium in potato tuber grown on naturally high levels cadmium soils in Jamaica

Sanderson, Da-Vaugh, Voutchkov, Mitko, Benkeblia, Noureddine
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.649 pp. 909-915
World Health Organization, bioaccumulation factor, cadmium, cation exchange capacity, edaphic factors, electrical conductivity, farmers, human health, organic matter, pH, potatoes, public health, regression analysis, risk, stakeholders, texture, tubers, zinc, Jamaica
Jamaican soils have been reported to have naturally high level of cadmium (Cd), and its bioaccumulation in edible crops is of great concern for farmers, stakeholders, and public health authorities. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Cd in soils in Jamaica and its bioaccumulation in potato tubers, and to determine the dominant soil factors influencing this bioaccumulation in potato. In addition, other soil factors were investigated such pH, electric conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), texture, organic matter content (OMC), and soil zinc (Zn) concentration. The soils' pH and Zn concentration were found to be the dominant factors influencing Cd accumulation in potato tubers, and this was confirmed by using a step-wise multiple regression analysis with the soil factors and tuber Cd (P < 0.05). With soil Cd ranging between 0.05 and 62.3 mg kg−1 and tuber Cd ranging between 0.01 and 0.22 mg kg−1 fresh weight, the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) of Cd in potato tuber gave a precise assessment of the influence of soil variables on Cd accumulation in potato tuber. The Cd concentration in potato tubers was found 50% higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) regulation for potatoes (0.05 mg kg−1 fresh weight), and therefore, this should raise real concerns about the human health risk in Jamaica.