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Nine phthalate metabolites in human urine for the comparison of health risk between population groups with different water consumptions
- Li, Jiufeng, Zhao, Hongzhi, Xia, Wei, Zhou, Yanqiu, Xu, Shunqing, Cai, Zongwei
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.649 pp. 1532-1540
- activated carbon, average daily intake, bottled water, humans, metabolites, phthalates, risk, tap water, urine, women
- Phthalates are a group of high production volume chemicals widely detected in environment matrix and human specimens. Potential health risks due to the prevalence of their exposure through water consumption and the endocrine-disrupting activities have become an important issue. This work aims to compare the distributions of phthalate levels and potential health risks caused by phthalate exposure among three groups of participants ingesting different types of water. Here, a method with good performance was applied for the analysis of nine common phthalate metabolites in 125 human urine samples collected from Wuhan women. Seven analytes (mono‑ethyl, mono‑benzyl, mono‑n‑butyl, mono‑(2‑ethylhexyl), mono‑(2‑ethyl‑5‑oxohexyl), mono‑(2‑ethyl‑5‑hydroxyhexyl), and mono‑(2‑ethyl‑5‑carboxypentyl) phthalate) were detected in over 80% of the samples. By measuring urinary concentrations of phthalate monoesters, the exposure levels of respective parent phthalates, exposure patterns, the estimated daily intakes and accumulative risk assessments were investigated in three groups of participants consuming water from different sources (bottled water, filtered water and boiled tap water). The results showed that the exposure patterns of phthalates varied among the population groups with different water intakes, and the health risk was higher for people ingesting the boiled tap water than that of the groups consuming bottled water (purified water) and filtered water with filter cartridge containing activated carbon.