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Highly adsorptive oxidized starch nanoparticles for efficient urea removal
- Abidin, Muhammad Nidzhom Zainol, Goh, Pei Sean, Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi, Said, Noresah, Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan, Hasbullah, Hasrinah, Abdullah, Mohd Sohaimi, Ng, Be Cheer, Kadir, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul, Kamal, Fatmawati
- Carbohydrate polymers 2018 v.201 pp. 257-263
- adsorbents, adsorption, corn starch, dialysis, glucose, hemodialysis, liquids, models, nanoparticles, oxidation, sorption isotherms, starch, urea
- Portable dialysis is a need to implement daily and nocturnal hemodialysis. To realize portable dialysis, a dialysate regeneration system comprising superior adsorbents is required to regenerate the used dialysate. This study aims to develop a nano-adsorbent, derived from corn starch for urea removal. Oxidized starch nanoparticles (oxy-SNPs) were prepared via liquid phase oxidation, followed by chemical dissolution and non-solvent precipitation. The oxy-SNPs possessed Z-average size of 177.7 nm with carbonyl and carboxyl contents of 0.068 and 0.048 per 100 glucose units, respectively. The urea adsorption achieved the equilibrium after 4 h with 95% removal. The adsorption mechanism fitted Langmuir isotherm while the adsorption kinetics obeyed pseudo-second-order model. This new material has a maximum adsorption capacity of 185.2 mg/g with a rate constant of 0.04 g/mg.h. Moreover, the oxy-SNPs exhibited the urea uptake recovery of 91.6%. Oxy-SNPs can become a promising adsorbent for dialysate regeneration system to remove urea.