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Highly adsorptive oxidized starch nanoparticles for efficient urea removal

Abidin, Muhammad Nidzhom Zainol, Goh, Pei Sean, Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi, Said, Noresah, Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan, Hasbullah, Hasrinah, Abdullah, Mohd Sohaimi, Ng, Be Cheer, Kadir, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul, Kamal, Fatmawati
Carbohydrate polymers 2018 v.201 pp. 257-263
adsorbents, adsorption, corn starch, dialysis, glucose, hemodialysis, liquids, models, nanoparticles, oxidation, sorption isotherms, starch, urea
Portable dialysis is a need to implement daily and nocturnal hemodialysis. To realize portable dialysis, a dialysate regeneration system comprising superior adsorbents is required to regenerate the used dialysate. This study aims to develop a nano-adsorbent, derived from corn starch for urea removal. Oxidized starch nanoparticles (oxy-SNPs) were prepared via liquid phase oxidation, followed by chemical dissolution and non-solvent precipitation. The oxy-SNPs possessed Z-average size of 177.7 nm with carbonyl and carboxyl contents of 0.068 and 0.048 per 100 glucose units, respectively. The urea adsorption achieved the equilibrium after 4 h with 95% removal. The adsorption mechanism fitted Langmuir isotherm while the adsorption kinetics obeyed pseudo-second-order model. This new material has a maximum adsorption capacity of 185.2 mg/g with a rate constant of 0.04 g/mg.h. Moreover, the oxy-SNPs exhibited the urea uptake recovery of 91.6%. Oxy-SNPs can become a promising adsorbent for dialysate regeneration system to remove urea.