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Development of a molecular serotyping scheme and a multiplexed luminex-based array for Providencia

Du, Yuhui, Li, Huiying, Yin, Zhiqiu, Rozalski, Antoni, Torzewska, Agnieszka, Yang, Pan, Qian, Chengqian, Xu, Tingting, Cao, Hengchun, Wu, Pan, Jiang, Lingyan, Guo, Xi, Huang, Di, Liu, Bin
Journal of microbiological methods 2018 v.153 pp. 14-23
DNA, Gram-negative bacteria, Morganella, O-antigens, Proteus, Providencia, animal pathogens, biosynthesis, detection limit, monitoring, multigene family, ozone, serotypes, urine, uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Providencia is an opportunistic human pathogen that belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The bacterial cell surface O-antigen is one of the most structurally variable cell constituents and serves as a basis for serotyping gram-negative bacteria. In this work, the genomes of 12 Providencia strains were sequenced, and genes driving O-antigen biosynthesis were analyzed. The O-antigen-synthesizing genes of Providencia are located in the O-antigen gene cluster (OGC) between the cpxA and yibK genes. The gene functions predicted in silico agreed with the known O-antigen structures. All clusters were found to contain both wzx and wzy and exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity. Based on the sero-specific genes, we developed a molecular serotyping system to detect 23 serotypes (from the present and previous studies) for the first time. Five Proteus strains, five Morganella strains, five uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains and 32 Providencia strains with other serotypes were used to assess the specificity of our multiplexed Luminex-based array. Five serogroups (O3, O8, O19, O38 and O52 strains) were used to determine the sensitivity of the suspension array. The detection sensitivity was 0.1 ng genomic DNA, 10³ CFU/ml in pure culture, or 10⁴ CFU/ml in mock urine specimens. Furthermore, 29 publicly available Providencia genomes (which have not been serotyped) were analyzed, and 23 novel putative OGC types were identified. In total, we identified 35 new OGCs and developed a molecular serotyping system based on the sero-specific genes. The established classification system can support promising applications in basic research, clinical diagnosis, and epidemiological surveillance.