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Development of the ovule and seed of Habanero chili pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Anatomical characterization and immunocytochemical patterns of pectin methyl-esterification

Pérez-Pastrana, Jacobo, Islas-Flores, Ignacio, Bárány, Ivett, Álvarez-López, Dulce, Canto-Flick, Adriana, Canto-Canché, Blondy, Peña-Yam, Laura, Muñoz-Ramírez, Liliana, Avilés-Viñas, Susana, Testillano, Pilar S., Santana-Buzzy, Nancy
Journal of plant physiology 2018 v.230 pp. 1-12
Capsicum chinense, biochemical mechanisms, buds, cell walls, embryogenesis, enzymes, females, hot peppers, morphogenesis, ovules, pectins, plant growth substances, seed development, seeds, somatic cells
Ovule and seed development in plants has long fascinated the scientific community given the complex cell coordination implicated in these processes. These cell events are highly conserved but are not necessarily representative of all plants. In this study, with the aim of obtaining information regarding the cellular patterns that follow the usual development of the ovule and the zygotic embryo, we carried out an integral anatomical study of the Capsicum chinense Jacq., floral buds and seeds at various days during maturation. This study allowed us to identify the main histo-morphological stages accompanying the transition of somatic cells into the macrospore, female gamete, and the zygotic embryogenesis. This knowledge is fundamental for future biotechnological research focused on solving the morphological recalcitrance observed during the in vitro induction of somatic or microspore embryogenesis in Capsicum. For the first time in C. chinense, we have described the hypostases, a putative source of plant growth regulators, and “the corrosion cavity”, a space around the embryo. Additionally, the cell wall pectin-esterification status was investigated by immunohistology. At early stages of morphogenesis, the pectin is highly methyl-esterified; however, methyl-esterification decreases gradually throughout the process. A comparison of the results obtained here, together with the histo- and immunological changes occurring during the somatic and microspore embryogenesis, should help to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that trigger the morphogenic events in Capsicum spp.