U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

David R. Gealy, Nilda R. Burgos, Kathleen M. Yeater, Aaron K. Jackson
Weed science 2015 v.63 no.3 pp. 647-657
Oryza sativa, biotypes, cultivars, environmental factors, flowering, flowers, gene flow, genetic markers, germplasm, grain yield, humidity, microsatellite repeats, outcrossing, paddies, phenology, pollen, rain, red rice, solar radiation, temperature, weeds, Southeastern United States
Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern United States. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a germplasm source for breeding and for reduced-input systems in the United States, but little is known about its outcrossing potential with U.S. weedy red rice biotypes. In a 2-yr study, simple sequence repeat marker analysis was used to show that blackhull (BH) red rice (PI 653424) outcrossing to four, late-maturing indica cultivars averaged 0.0086% and ranged from 0.002% for ‘TeQing’ to 0.0173% for ‘4484’ (PI 615022). Rates of outcrossing to a tropical japonica cultivar standard, ‘Kaybonnet’ (0.032%), were substantially greater than for the indica cultivars. These differences in outcrossing were due largely to synchronization of flowering times between rice and red rice, with Kaybonnet and TeQing exhibiting the greatest and least synchronization, respectively. Outcrossing rates also may have been affected by rice–red rice flower density differences within the rice plots. Outcrossing from cultivated rice to the red rice (as pollen recipient), which was taller than all rice cultivars, was undetectable in these studies, and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and rainfall) were not strongly correlated with the outcrossing rates observed. Grain yields of the original BH red rice line were greatest in the Kaybonnet plots, demonstrating that the indica cultivars were superior competitors against this weed. Collectively, these results suggest that red rice biotypes that flower synchronously with rice cultivars are a potential source of pollen for outcrossing and gene flow in rice fields in the southern United States.