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Essential oils from tropical medicinal herbs and food plants inhibit biofilm formation in vitro and are non-cytotoxic to human cells
- Aumeeruddy-Elalfi, Zaahira, Ismaël, Ismaël Saïd, Hosenally, Muzzammil, Zengin, Gokhan, Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi
- 3 Biotech 2018 v.8 no.9 pp. 395
- Artemia salina, Candida albicans, Cinnamomum verum, Citrus hystrix, Citrus maxima, Citrus reticulata, Escherichia coli, Psiadia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, anti-infective agents, biofilm, carcinoma, cell lines, cervix, cytotoxicity, drugs, essential oils, fibroblasts, food plants, humans, inhibitory concentration 50, lethal concentration 50, lungs, medicinal plants, melanoma, mice, transporters
- The biofilm inhibition and eradication potential of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six tropical medicinal herbs and food plants [Psiadia arguta (PA), Psiadia terebinthina (PT), Citrus grandis (CGp), Citrus hystrix (CH), Citrus reticulata (CR), and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ)] were assessed. The mechanism of inhibition was studied via quenching of efflux pump. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using Artemia salina assay and cell lines [human cervix carcinoma (HeLa), human lung fibroblast (MRC-5), and murine melanoma (B16F10)]. EOs of CH, CR, PA, and PT were found to be prospective antibiofilm agents (IC₅₀ of 0.29, 0.59, 0.22, and 0.11 mg/mL against Staphylococcus epidermidis; 0.39, 0.54, 0.09, and 0.13 mg/mL against Escherichia coli; and 0.54, 0.90, 0.44 and 0.51 mg/mL against Candida albicans for CH, CR, PA, and PT, respectively). The simultaneous actions of the EOs and efflux pump inhibitor impacted on the resistance of the biofilms. LC₅₀ of the EOs ranged from 223 to 583 µg/mL against A. salina. The non-cytotoxic concentration of the EOs varied from 200 to 300 µg/mL (HeLa and MRC-5), and 150–200 µg/mL (B16F10). EOs from these tropical medicinal herbs and food plants are useful sources of new antimicrobials with low cytotoxicity which could open new horizons in the drug development process.