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Morphological phylogeny of Dictyopharidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha)

Song, Zhi‐Shun, Bartlett, Charles R., O'Brien, Lois B., Liang, Ai‐Ping, Bourgoin, Thierry
Systematic entomology 2018 v.43 no.4 pp. 637-658
Dictyopharidae, adults, monophyly
To explore the phylogenetic basis of the current classification of Dictyopharidae, especially the relationships among the tribes of Dictyopharinae, we present the first cladistic analysis of this family based on 146 morphological characters of adults. Our analysis includes 104 of 125 recognized genera and subgenera within 12 extant tribes of Dictyopharinae, plus nine genera representing all four tribes of Orgeriinae. The results of this study support Dictyopharidae as a monophyletic group with Aluntiini sister to the remaining Dictyopharidae, but do not support Orgeriinae as sister to Dictyopharinae. Seven major lineages – Aluntiini, Arjunini, Hastini, (Taosini + Lappidini) + Nersiini, a Xenochasma⁺ complex (including ‘Orgeriinae’), Orthopagini, and Dictyopharini – are recovered in Dictyopharidae. The Xenochasma⁺ complex is proposed here and includes Xenochasma clade + (Scoloptini + ((Fernandea clade + Phylloscelini) + (Rancodini + [Capenini + Orgeriinae]))). Within this complex, some genera are of uncertain tribal placement, and the Orgeriinae are retained as a subfamily until a molecular phylogeny can confirm the results of this paper. The implied weighting analysis supports the monophyly of most tribes of Dictyopharinae (except Taosini), the sister‐group relationships of (Taosini + Lappidini) with Nersiini, and Orthopagini + Dictyopharini, and the current tribal classification for Dictyopharinae. Most Dictyopharinae genera fit their respective tribal affiliation, but some proposed changes are that Pharodictyon, Paramisia, Dictyopharoides s.s., Chondrophana, Sicoris, Chondrodire, and Tupala are provisionally placed in Hastini; Pukuakanga is moved into Nersiini; Sinodictya and Raphiophora are transferred into Orthopagini; and Chiltana, Litocras, and Viridophara are placed in Dictyopharini.