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Exploitation of Cytoskeletal Networks during Early Viral Infection
- Walsh, Derek, Naghavi, Mojgan H.
- Trends in microbiology 2019 v.27 no.1 pp. 39-50
- Herpesviridae, Retroviridae, microfilaments, microtubules, viruses
- Being dependent upon host transport systems to navigate the cytoplasm, viruses have evolved various strategies to manipulate cytoskeletal functions. Generally, viruses use the actin cytoskeleton to control entry and short-range transport at the cell periphery and exploit microtubules (MTs) for longer-range cytosolic transport, in some cases to reach the nucleus. While earlier studies established the fundamental importance of these networks to successful infection, the mechanistic details and true extent to which viruses usurp highly specialized host cytoskeletal regulators and motor adaptors is only beginning to emerge. This review outlines our current understanding of how cytoskeletal regulation contributes specifically to the early stages of viral infection, with a primary focus on retroviruses and herpesviruses as examples of recent advances in this area.