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High-resolution paleoclimatic proxy data from the MIS3/2 transition recorded in northeastern Hungarian loess

Bösken, Janina, Obreht, Igor, Zeeden, Christian, Klasen, Nicole, Hambach, Ulrich, Sümegi, Pál, Lehmkuhl, Frank
Quaternary international 2019 v.502 pp. 95-107
basins, color, dust, floodplains, hills, loess, luminescence, magnetism, microclimate, paleoecology, paleosolic soil types, radiocarbon dating, sand, weathering, wind direction, Hungary
The Bodrogkeresztúr loess-paleosol sequence in northeastern Hungary was investigated to improve our understanding of the paleoenvironmental conditions at the foothills of the Carpathians and their impact on the Gravettian population. The main part of the section is comprised of eolian deposits that enable the reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental conditions. This study comprises grain size, geochemical, color and rock magnetic analysis, as well as luminescence and radiocarbon dating. The chronological data place this section from later MIS 3 until present, but also suggest erosion of the sediment in the late MIS 2 and the (early) Holocene. Moreover, generally more humid conditions during late MIS3 and early MIS2 are observed, in comparison to other regions in the Carpathian Basin. Main dust source was most likely the Tisza floodplain, and the material was probably transported to the site from a northeastern wind direction. Increased weathering led to the formation of a well-developed MIS3 paleosol. The loess exhibits elevated values of frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility that highlight the relatively mild conditions during loess formation. Nevertheless, two loess layers with high sand abundance in the profile indicate colder and dryer conditions with increased eolian dynamics during short periods within MIS2. Finally, the Bodrogkeresztúr section highlights the unique microclimatic conditions at the foothill areas of the Carpathian Basin, which may have offered a favorable environment for the Gravettian population.