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Excretory, Secretory, and Tissue Residues after Label and Extra-label Administration of Flunixin Meglumine to Saline- or Lipopolysaccharide-Exposed Dairy Cows
- Smith, David J., Shelver, Weilin L., Baynes, Ronald E., Tell, Lisa, Gehring, Ronette, Li, Mingjie, Dutko, Terry, Schroeder, J. W., Herges, Grant, Riviere, Jim E.
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2015 v.63 no.19 pp. 4893-4901
- animal tissues, dairy cows, drug residues, flunixin, intramuscular injection, intravenous injection, lactation, lipopolysaccharides, liver, milk, pharmacokinetics, urine
- Twenty lactating dairy cattle were intravenously infused with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (n = 10) or sterile saline (n = 10). Five cattle in each group received three doses of flunixin meglumine administered by either intravenous infusion or intramuscular injection at 24 h intervals. Milk, urine, and tissues were collected. Thirty-six hours after the last flunixin administration, milk from six cows contained 5-hydroxyflunixin (5OHF) levels greater than the milk tolerance of 2 ng/mL; by 48 h, milk from two cows, a saline and a LPS-treated animal, had violative milk concentrations of 5OHF. A single animal treated with LPS and intramuscular flunixin contained violative flunixin residues in liver. The ratio of urinary flunixin/5OHF was correlated (P < 0.01; R2 = 0.946) with liver flunixin residues in LPS-treated animals, but not (P = 0.96; R2 = 0.003) in cows treated with saline in lieu of LPS. Violative residues of flunixin in dairy cattle may be related to LPS inhibition of flunixin metabolism.