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CAPN1, CAST, and DGAT1 genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in a beef cattle population selected for haplotype and allele equalization

Tait Jr., R. G., Shackelford, S. D., Wheeler, T. L., King, D. A., Keeke, J. W., Casas, E., Smith, T. P. L., Bennett, G. L.
Journal of animal science 2014 v.92 no.12 pp. 5382-5393
additive effect, alleles, beef, beef cattle, calpastatin, carcass quality, fat thickness, gene frequency, genetic markers, haplotypes, homozygosity, inheritance (genetics), marbling, marker-assisted selection, meat tenderness, models, pleiotropy, risk, single nucleotide polymorphism, steaks, subcutaneous fat, variance, weaning, yearlings
Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC III) was subjected to marker-assisted selection for multiple years to equalize specific marker frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits (n = 254), 2) estimate pleiotropic effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits (n = 542 or 254), and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance for LM tenderness. Three haplotypes within μ-calpain (CAPN1), a SNP in calpastatin (CAST), and a dinucleotide substitution in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) were successfully selected to equalize their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, yearling BW, final BW, dressing per- cent, HCW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, LM slice shear force (SSF), and vis- ible and near-infrared (VISNIR)-predicted SSF. While the CAPN1 genotype effect on SSF was not significant (P = 0.12), the direction and size of CAPN1 contrasts were consistent with previous research. Effects on SSF between divergent CAPN1 haplotypes (1.153 kg) and the additive effect of CAST (0.902 kg) were large, and animals homozygous for tender alleles at both CAPN1 and CAST would have 4.11 kg lower SSF (27.5% of the mean) than animals homozygous tough for both markers. Furthermore, the interaction between CAPN1 and CAST for SSF was not significant (P = 0.40). There were significant effects for DGAT1 on adjusted fat thickness (P = 0.02) and VISNIR-predicted SSF (P < 0.001) with additive and dominance modes of inheritance (P < 0.05) for both traits. Furthermore, CAST genotype specific residual variance models fit significantly better (P < 0.001) than single residual variance models for SSF, with the tougher genotypes having progressively larger residual (and hence phenotypic) variances. Therefore, risk of a tough steak from the undesired CAST geno- type is increased through both an increase in mean and an increase in variation. This work is supportive of the importance of CAPN1 and CAST for mean tenderness in beef, confirms an effect of CAST on beef LM tenderness variation, and identifies an effect of DGAT1 on subcutaneous fat thickness.