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Effects of Cultivars, Organic Cropping Management, and Environment on Antioxidants in Whole Grain Rice
- Chen, Ming-Hsuan, McClung, Anna M.
- Cereal chemistry 2015 v.92 no.4 pp. 364-369
- Oryza sativa, antioxidants, breeding, crop management, cultivars, flavonoids, organic production, oryzanol, proanthocyanidins, rice, secondary metabolites, tocopherols, tocotrienols, whole grain foods
- Whole grain rice contains functional antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids (including proanthocyanidins), vitamin E homologs (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and gamma-oryzanol that have positive effects on human health. These antioxidants are secondary metabolites in plants that can be induced under external stress. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effects of cultivars, crop management method, and growing environment on the concentrations of these antioxidants in whole grain rice. Cultivars and environment contributed to a higher percentage of variation in the concentrations of these antioxidants than did crop management method. Cultivars accounted for a greater proportion of the variation than environment for all traits except total tocotrienols and gamma-oryzanol. Cultivars that are high in concentrations of these antioxidants were identified, but no one cultivar contained the highest concentration of all antioxidants evaluated. These cultivar differences indicate that improvement for phytochemical and antioxidant traits can be accomplished through traditional breeding. Because of the limited effect of crop management on these antioxidants, choice of cultivar should be the focus for organic production of whole grain rice high in these antioxidants.