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Lean non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
- Wang, Alice Yuxin, Dhaliwal, Jasbir, Mouzaki, Marialena
- Clinical nutrition 2019 v.38 no.3 pp. 975-981
- adults, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, environmental factors, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, lifestyle, metabolic syndrome, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, patients
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), with its increasing prevalence and association with various co-morbidities, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, is a growing concern. Previously thought to predominantly affect obese individuals, NAFLD has been shown to occur in non-obese subjects. This subset of individuals, known to have ‘lean NAFLD’ or ‘non-obese NAFLD’, is also growing increasingly prevalent. We summarize the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology and management of lean NAFLD in both adult and pediatric populations.Two reviewers performed an independent, formal review and analysis of the literature (PubMed and EMBASE search until April 2018).Patients with lean NAFLD share metabolic features of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, similar to obese patients with NAFLD. Genetic predisposition, dietary and environmental factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of lean NAFLD. Genetic and metabolic conditions should be considered as well. Currently, there are no formal recommendations for the treatment of adult or pediatric lean NAFLD; however, lifestyle changes aimed at improving overall fitness are likely to have a favorable impact.