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Optimal reservoir operation using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms for potential estuarine eutrophication control

Yu, Yang, Wang, Peifang, Wang, Chao, Wang, Xun
Journal of environmental management 2018 v.223 pp. 758-770
algae, algal blooms, algorithms, brackish water, case studies, drinking water, estuaries, eutrophication, models, pollution load, satiety, water power, water requirement, water reservoirs, China
Increased nutrient loads and changed nutrient ratios in estuarine waters have enhanced the occurrence of eutrophication and harmful algae blooms. Most of these consequences are caused by the new proliferation of toxin-producing non-siliceous algae. In this study, we propose a multi-objective reservoir operation model based on 10-day time scale for estuarine eutrophication control to reduce the potential non-siliceous algae outbreak. This model takes the hydropower generation and social economy water requirement in reservoir into consideration, minimizing the ICEP (indicator of estuarine eutrophication potential) as an ecological objective. Three modern multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are applied to solve the proposed reservoir operation model. The Three Gorges Reservoir and its operation effects on the Yangtze Estuary were chosen as a case study. The performances of these three algorithms were evaluated through a diagnostic assessment framework of modern MOEAs' abilities. The results showed that the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition with differential evolution operator (MOEA/D-DE) achieved the best performance for the operation model. It indicates that single implementation of hydrological management cannot make effective control of potential estuarine eutrophication, while combined in-estuary TP concentration control and reservoir optimal operation is a more realistic, crucial and effective strategy for controlling eutrophication potential of non-siliceous algae proliferation. Under optimized operation with controlled TP concentration and estuarine water withdrawal of 1470 m3/s, ecological satiety rate for estuarine drinking water source increased to 77.78%, 88.89% and 83.33% for wet, normal and dry years, the corresponding values in practical operation were only 72.22%, 58.33% and 55.56%, respectively. The results suggest that these operations will not negatively affect the economic and social interests. Therefore, the proposed integrated management approaches can provide guidance for water managers to reach a stable trophic control of estuarine waters.