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Enhanced accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in rice bran using anaerobic incubation with various additives
- Oh, Su-Jin, Kim, Hyun Soo, Lim, Seung-Taik, Reddy, Chagam Koteswara
- Food chemistry 2019 v.271 pp. 187-192
- additives, anaerobic treatment, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamic acid, nitrogen, rice bran, water content, wheat protein hydrolysates, yeast extract
- An anaerobic incubation for the enzymatic production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rice bran with the addition of glutamate, hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP), yeast extract (YE) and pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) was investigated. Rice bran was moistened (30% moisture content) with an electrolyzed oxidizing water and anaerobically incubated under nitrogen at 40 °C for 8 h. The incubation activated the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in rice bran and increased the GABA content from 10.7 to 171.5 mg/100 g. The addition of glutamate and protein hydrolysates further amplified the GABA content in the treated rice bran: 974.9, 487.4, and 372.8 mg/100 g, with 2.25% glutamate, 6% HWP, and 8% YE, respectively. Furthermore, addition of PLP (1.48 mg/100 g) as a coenzyme for GAD, together with 2.25% glutamate addition, could raise the GABA accumulation in rice bran to 2242 mg/100 g. Other amino acids in rice bran were changed in their composition by the anaerobic treatment.