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Gluten-free flours from cereals, pseudocereals and legumes: Phenolic fingerprints and in vitro antioxidant properties

Rocchetti, Gabriele, Lucini, Luigi, Rodriguez, Jose M. Lorenzo, Barba, Francisco J., Giuberti, Gianluca
Food chemistry 2019 v.271 pp. 157-164
anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, black rice, flavanols, flavanones, flavonols, gluten, gluten-free foods, isoflavonoids, legumes, metabolomics, multivariate analysis, nutritive value, phenolic acids, rice flour
The interest in gluten-free (GF) products increases together with the increase in gluten-sensitive people. However, GF foods might have decreased nutritional quality as compared to the gluten containing counterparts. In this work, an investigation of the phenolic and antioxidant profile in 18 GF flours belonging to legumes, cereals and pseudocereals was achieved. Significant differences could be observed across samples. Total phenolic content was highest in violet rice flours, whereas total anthocyanins were highest in violet, nerone, and black rice flours. FRAP and ORAC antioxidant activities were correlated to phenolic contents and found to be higher in violet rice flours. Metabolomics highlighted a wide diversity in phenolics, with flavonoids (197 compounds ascribable to anthocyanins, flavones, flavanones, isoflavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols), phenolic acids (74 compounds belonging to hydroxycinnamics, hydroxybenzoics, and hydroxyphenylacetics), and tyrosol derivatives the most represented. Finally, OPLS-DA multivariate statistics outlined flavonoids, furofurans and phenolic acids as the most discriminant phenolics.