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Meat flavor generation from different composition patterns of initial Maillard stage intermediates formed in heated cysteine-xylose-glycine reaction systems
- Zhao, Jian, Wang, Tianze, Xie, Jianchun, Xiao, Qunfei, Du, Wenbin, Wang, Yaxin, Cheng, Jie, Wang, Shi
- Food chemistry 2019 v.274 pp. 79-88
- carbon, carboxylic acids, cysteine, flavor, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, isotope labeling, meat, models, solid phase microextraction, stable isotopes, thiophene, volatile compounds
- Volatile compounds formed in model reactions involving synthesized initial Maillard intermediates Gly-Amadori and [13C5]-2-threityl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids ([13C5]-TTCA) in different molar ratios and free cysteine and glycine were investigated by solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. The 1:1 ratio composition pattern provided the highest yields of all the sulfur-containing compounds, the potent meaty flavors or their 13C-labeled/unlabeled fractions, indicating a moderate level of glycine relative to cysteine was optimum for maximally yielding meaty flavors in complex meat-like Maillard systems containing cysteine as well as glycine. In addition, the 1:1 ratio composition led to formation of 13C-labeled molecules of some key meaty flavors e.g. 2-furanthiol representing over 70%, indicating TTCA/glycine reaction was better than Gly-Amadori/cysteine to yield meaty flavors. Formation pathways of twenty-nine flavors were elucidated based on the detected isotope distribution patterns. In particular, 2-methyltetrahydrothiophen-3-one, 3-thiophenethiol, 2-ethylthiophene, 2,5-dimethylthiophene, and 5-methylthiophene-2-carboxaldehyde involved a new formation pathway. Thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and 2-methylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene showed two formation pathways.