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Meal-specific dietary patterns and their contribution to overall dietary patterns in the Japanese context: Findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan

Murakami, Kentaro, Livingstone, M. Barbara E., Sasaki, Satoshi
Nutrition 2019 v.59 pp. 108-115
adults, alcoholic beverages, breakfast, dinner, eating habits, eggs, fish, food groups, food intake, fruits, lunch, meat, noodles, nutrition surveys, potatoes, principal component analysis, rice, sugars, tea, Japan
Most studies on dietary patterns have focused on the total daily intake of foods without differentiating intake at specific eating occasions. The aim of this study was to identify meal-specific (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) dietary patterns and examine their contribution to overall dietary patterns, using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.Dietary intake was assessed with a 1-d weighed dietary record for 15 618 Japanese adults ≥20 y of age.Using principal component analysis based on daily consumption of 22 food groups, four overall dietary patterns were identified: vegetable/fruit/fish/pulse, bread/dairy, meat/fat, and noodle/seasoning patterns. Four meal-specific dietary patterns, which were independently identified in the same manner based on consumption at each eating occasion, were as follows:• Breakfast: rice/vegetable/fish/pulse/seasoning, bread/dairy/fruit/sugar, meat/egg/fat, and tea/coffee patterns;• Lunch: bread/dairy, noodle/seasoning, meat/fat, and vegetable/pulse/potato/sugar patterns; and• Dinner: meat/vegetable/seasoning, noodle/alcoholic beverage, fish/sugar/alcoholic beverage, and other grains/fat patterns.The major contributors to interindividual variation in the vegetable/fruit/fish/pulse overall dietary pattern included the rice/vegetable/fish/pulse/seasoning breakfast (28%), the vegetable/pulse/potato/sugar lunch (15%), and the fish/sugar/alcoholic beverage dinner (19%). For other overall dietary patterns, the major contributors were generally patterns with similar characteristics, namely the bread/dairy/fruit/sugar breakfast (33%) and the bread/dairy lunch (24%) for the bread/dairy overall dietary pattern; the meat/egg/fat breakfast (13%), the meat/fat lunch (33%), the meat/vegetable/seasoning dinner (28%), and the other grains/fat dinner (11%) for the meat/fat overall dietary pattern; and the noodle/seasoning lunch (51%) and the noodle/alcoholic beverage dinner (25%) for the noodle/seasoning overall dietary pattern.Major meal-specific dietary patterns were identified in the Japanese context, which differentially contributed to major overall dietary patterns.