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Composting of smuggled cigarettes tobacco and industrial sewage sludge in reactors: Physicochemical, phytotoxic and spectroscopic study
- Zittel, Rosimara, da Silva, Cleber Pinto, Domingues, Cinthia Eloise, Seremeta, Daniele Cristina Hass, Estrada, Ruben Auccaise, de Campos, Sandro Xavier
- Waste management 2018 v.79 pp. 537-544
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, carbon, cation exchange capacity, cigarettes, composting, electrical conductivity, humification, nitrogen, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, pH, phytotoxicity, seed germination, sewage sludge, spectral analysis, temperature
- The maturity of smuggled cigarette tobacco (SCT) and industrial sewage sludge (ISS) compost during composting in reactors was evaluated through physicochemical, phytotoxic and spectroscopic parameters. The temperatures reached peaks above 52 °C in the three reactors and were enough to achieve the stability of the compounds. The electric conductivity was in the optimal interval for farming uses and the pH alkaline band was favorable to produce inorganic nitrogen. The reduction in the C∕N ratio and the increase in cation exchange capacity (CEC) indicated an increase in the compost humification. After 120 days, the seed germination index (SGI) reached 95 % in reactor 3. In the three treatments, the reduction in E2/E6 and E4/E6 ratios (UV/Vis), the increase in humification indices, obtained through FTIR and the aromatic carbon resonance (¹³C NMR) indicated a high degree of aromaticity. The composting process in reactors was efficient to degrade different proportions of SCT and ISS, resulting in mature composts.