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Potent herbicidal activity of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. against Avena fatua L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.
- Ma, Shujie, Fu, Leilei, He, Siqi, Lu, Xiaopeng, Wu, Yuanyong, Ma, Zhiqing, Zhang, Xing
- Industrial crops and products 2018 v.122 pp. 1-6
- Amaranthus retroflexus, Avena fatua, Sapindus mukorossi, allelochemicals, commercialization, ethanol, herbicidal properties, inhibitory concentration 50, leaf extracts, leaves, lupeol, oleanolic acid, palmitic acid, pelargonic acid, petroleum, pot culture, root growth, roots, shoots, stearic acid
- The evaluation of herbicidal activity and the isolation of plant allelopathic substances can lead to the discovery of new herbicide. This study has confirmed that the ethanol extract of S. mukorossi leaves was inhibitory to growth of Avena fatua L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L. both in petri dish experiment and pot culture assay, with the fresh weight inhibition varied between 47.60% and 62.05% at a concentration of 40 g/L of the leaf extract, being comparable to that of a commercialized natural product herbicide pelargonic acid at a concentration of 4 g/L. Five herbicidal compounds, oleanolic acid (1), lupeol (2), d-pinitol (3), hexadecanoic acid (4) and octadecanoic acid (5) were isolated from the most active fraction, petroleum ether extract. D-pinitol (3) showed the highest growth inhibitory activity against both the shoot and root of A. fatua, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 53.61 and 56.43 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, oleanolic acid (1) and d-pinitol (3) also inhibited the growth of A. retroflexus with the IC50 value of 56.05 and 61.89 μg/mL against shoot growth, and 58.07 and 66.70 μg/mL against root growth, respectively. Thus, oleanolic acid (1) and d-pinitol (3) are the main phytotoxin constituents of S. mukorossi, and these compounds have the potential for further development as a botanical herbicide.