U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

HoBi-like viruses – the typical ‘atypical bovine pestivirus’

Fernando V. Bauermann, Julia F. Ridpath
Animal health research reviews 2015 v.16 no.1 pp. 64-69
nose, reproductive disorders, diagnostic techniques, host range, sampling, acute course, monitoring, sheep, cattle, hemorrhage, respiratory tract diseases, viruses, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, seroconversion, viral shedding, leukopenia, fever, swine, Asia, South America
HoBi-like viruses, also referred to as bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 (BVDV-3) and atypical pestivirus, have been proposed as a new putative bovine pestivirus species. These viruses were first identified in the last decade and are currently distributed in at least three continents. Published findings suggest that these viruses may be endemic at least in parts of South America and Asia. The clinical presentations in cattle, described in field outbreaks and controlled studies, are similar to those associated with BVDV and range from subclinical to mild clinical signs, sporadically associated with reproductive losses, respiratory illness and hemorrhagic syndrome. The complete host range of HoBi-like virus is unknown, but data suggest higher adaptation of HoBi-like viruses to ruminants than swine. Acute infections, characterized by mild clinical signs, such as low-grade pyrexia and leukopenia, have been observed in both cattle and sheep. Virus has been isolated from nasal swabs indicating that virus was being shed. While seroconversion has been observed in pigs, no clinical presentation or viral shedding was evident following inoculation. While some commercial BVDV diagnostic tests may detect HoBi-like viruses, these tests do not differentiate between BVDV and HoBi-like viruses. The differentiation of BVDV and HoBi-like viruses is critical to the design of surveillance programs for these viruses.