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Low diversity gut microbiota dysbiosis: drivers, functional implications and recovery

Kriss, Michael, Hazleton, Keith Z, Nusbacher, Nichole M, Martin, Casey G, Lozupone, Catherine A
Current opinion in microbiology 2018 v.44 pp. 34-40
Clostridium difficile, adults, anaerobes, dysbiosis, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal microorganisms, liver diseases, microbial communities, phenotype
Dysbiosis, an imbalance in microbial communities, is linked with disease when this imbalance disturbs microbiota functions essential for maintaining health or introduces processes that promote disease. Dysbiosis in disease is predicted when microbiota differ compositionally from a healthy control population, but only truly defined when these differences are mechanistically related to adverse phenotypes. For the human gut microbiota, dysbiosis varies across diseases. One common manifestation is replacement of the complex community of anaerobes typical of the healthy adult gut microbiome with a community of lower overall microbial diversity and increased facultative anaerobes. Here we review diseases in which low-diversity dysbiosis has been observed and mechanistically linked with disease, with a particular focus on liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and Clostridium difficile infection.