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Selectivity of phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipase A2 enzymes in activated cells leading to polyunsaturated fatty acid mobilization

Astudillo, Alma M., Balboa, María A., Balsinde, Jesús
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2019 v.1864 no.6 pp. 772-783
eicosanoids, glycerol, hydrolysis, metabolites, omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipase A2, phospholipases, phospholipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids
Phospholipase A2s are enzymes that hydrolyze the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone of membrane glycerophospholipids. Given the asymmetric distribution of fatty acids within phospholipids, where saturated fatty acids tend to be present at the sn-1 position, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as those of the omega-3 and omega-6 series overwhelmingly localize in the sn-2 position, the phospholipase A2 reaction is of utmost importance as a regulatory checkpoint for the mobilization of these fatty acids and the subsequent synthesis of proinflammatory omega-6-derived eicosanoids on one hand, and omega-3-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators on the other. The great variety of phospholipase A2s, their differential substrate selectivity under a variety of pathophysiological conditions, as well as the different compartmentalization of each enzyme and accessibility to substrate, render this class of enzymes also key to membrane phospholipid remodeling reactions, and the generation of specific lipid mediators not related with canonical metabolites of omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids. This review highlights novel findings regarding the selective hydrolysis of phospholipids by phospholipase A2s and the influence this may have on the ability of these enzymes to generate distinct lipid mediators with essential functions in biological processes. This brings a new understanding of the cellular roles of these enzymes depending upon activation conditions.