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Systemic method to isolate large bacteriophages for use in biocontrol of a wide-range of pathogenic bacteria

Saad, Alaaeldin Mohamed, Soliman, Ahmed Mahrous, Kawasaki, Takeru, Fujie, Makoto, Nariya, Hirofumi, Shimamoto, Tadashi, Yamada, Takashi
Journal of bioscience and bioengineering 2019 v.127 no.1 pp. 73-78
Escherichia coli, Myoviridae, Salmonella Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, bacteria, bacteriophages, biological control, capsid, electron microscopy, genome, host range, hosts, pathogens, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, screening
Large phages are characterized by genomes around 200 kbp or more. They can infect wide host ranges of bacteria and maintain long-lasting infection. There is no standard method for selective isolation of large phages. In this study, we developed a systemic method to isolate large phages and succeeded in isolating 11 large phages, named Escherichia phage E1∼E11. Electron microscopy observations revealed typical Myoviridae phages with big capsids and long contractile tails. Genome sizes of the isolated phages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and found to be in two groups, those around 200 kbp for E1, E2, E5, E6, E7, E9 and E10 phages, and others of approximately 450 kbp for E3, E4, E8 and E11 phages. The isolated large phages had wide host ranges: for example, E9 was effective against Shigella sonnei SH05001, Shigella bydii SH00007, Shigella flexneri SH00006, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis SAL01078 and Escherichia coli C3000 (K-12 derivative), as well as its original host E. coli BL21. Screening of these jumbo phages was performed with non-pathogenic E. coli strains as hosts. Therefore, this method opens a way to isolate jumbo phages infecting wide ranges of pathogenic bacteria in a typical laboratory with standard laboratory strains as the hosts. The isolated large phages will be good candidates for biocontrol of various pathogens.