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Microencapsulation of walnut oil by spray drying: Effects of wall material and drying conditions on physicochemical properties of microcapsules
- Shamaei, Samira, Seiiedlou, Seyed Sadegh, Aghbashlo, Mortaza, Tsotsas, Evangelos, Kharaghani, Abdolreza
- Innovative food science & emerging technologies 2017 v.39 pp. 101-112
- air temperature, ambient temperature, atomization, bulk density, chemical analysis, dried skim milk, droplet size, emulsions, essential fatty acids, food industry, ingredients, microencapsulation, oxidation, particle size distribution, pharmaceutical industry, phytosterols, polysorbates, processed foods, scanning electron microscopy, solubility, spray drying, storage temperature, tocopherols, walnut oil, water content
- In this study, the effects of wall material formula and spray drying conditions on physicochemical properties of walnut oil microcapsules were investigated. Three different wall materials including skim milk powder (SMP), SMP+Tween 80, and SMP+maltodextrin were used for emulsion preparation. The prepared emulsions were analyzed for droplet size and stability. The emulsions were then dried in a pilot-scale spray dryer equipped with a two-fluid nozzle at different inlet drying air temperatures and feed atomization pressures in order to determine the optimal drying conditions for maximizing the microencapsulation efficiency. The microencapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, sphericity, moisture content, bulk density, and morphology of produced microcapsules were also measured experimentally. In addition, the microcapsules with the highest microencapsulation efficiency obtained from each wall material were subjected to surface coverage of oil test using electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) after 60days of storage at room temperature. The emulsion prepared using SMP and Tween 80 combination as wall material resulted in the highest microencapsulation efficiency (91.01%) at drying air temperature of 180°C and feed atomization pressure of 3bar. The lowest surface coverage of oil was also observed for microcapsules covered by SMP and Tween 80 combination. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed almost no cracks or fissures on the surface of microcapsules produced using SMP and Tween 80 combination at the optimal drying condition.Walnut oil contains highly valuable constituents such as essential fatty acids, tocopherols, and phytosterols. However, a direct application of this functional oil in processed foods is problematic due to its low solubility and susceptibility to oxidation. These issues could be greatly overcome by using microencapsulation technology. Nowadays, this technology has received an increasing attention in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its unique features in protecting the functionality of ingredients. Spray drying technology is one of the most frequently used techniques for this aim. However, comprehensive studies need to be carried out in order to determine suitable operational conditions of spray drying system for improving physicochemical properties of finished powder.