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Contextual and environmental influences on reported dietary energy intake at evening eating occasions

Lock, Chelsea, Brindal, Emily, Hendrie, Gilly A., Cox, David N.
Eating behaviors 2016 v.21 pp. 155-160
adults, computers, diet recall, energy intake, females, hunger, males, music, portion size, regression analysis, salads, telephones, variance, vegetables
This study sought to determine the simultaneous effect of immediate eating environment variables; portion size, plate size, proximity to food, variety of food, side serves of salad/vegetables and presence of distraction on dietary energy intake (EI), of a reported evening meal, in the participants' real world setting.A retrospective computer assisted telephone interview collected data on ten immediate eating environment variables, covariates and a 24-hour dietary recall of EI at an evening meal. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine relationships of these variables with EI. Significant (P<0.05) standardised beta coefficients (β) are reported.Australia wide, participants' homes.Australian adult males and females (n 150) aged 18–65years.Of the immediate eating environment variables, the absence of salads/vegetables (β=0.237), increased food variety (β=0.208), presence of music (β=0.207), and the consumption of pre-plated (as opposed to self-served) meals (β=0.195) had a positive association with EI, explaining 16.3% of the variance. Of the covariates, being male was the strongest predictor of EI (β=0.242); and hunger score also had a positive relationship with EI (β=0.190), explaining 17.5% of the variance.This study provides evidence that some immediate food environment variables at an evening eating occasion are associated with EI. Findings suggest there are several strategies that people could implement to assist in controlling their EI and help address over consumption.