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Classification of vitamin A deficiency levels by ocular changes in Japanese black cattle

Han, Shuqing, Kondo, Naoshi, Ogawa, Yuichi, Suzuki, Tetsuhito, Fukushima, Moriyuki, Kohama, Namiko, Fujiura, Tateshi, Zhang, Jianhua, Kong, Fantao, Wu, Jianzhai
Biosystems engineering 2018 v.173 pp. 71-78
cameras, cattle, color, eyes, farm management, farmers, vitamin A, vitamin A deficiency
To help Japanese black cattle farmers diagnose vitamin A deficiency (VAD) levels in cattle, eye images of 40 cattle were recorded monthly during their vitamin A manipulated period using a 2-CCD camera. Ocular features extracted from images, including pupil colour, pupillary light reflex and light reflection, were investigated. Multivariate classification methods (SIMCA and PLS-DA) were used to classify cattle into mild, moderate and severe VAD groups. Five variables (r, I, CA, IPR, I_RFL) were used for classification. The mild and severe VAD groups could be classified with over 85% correct classification rate. However, the moderate VAD group could not be discriminated adequately. A VAD index was developed and proven to be effective in representing VAD status. The results showed the potential for ocular changes to be utilised as an aid to farm management.