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New materials for sample preparation techniques in bioanalysis B Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences

Nazario, Carlos Eduardo Domingues, Fumes, Bruno Henrique, da Silva, Meire Ribeiro, Lanças, Fernando Mauro
Journal of chromatography 2017 v.1043 pp. 81-95
active ingredients, chromatography, graphene, ionic liquids, magnetic materials, mass spectrometry, polymers, quantitative analysis, synthesis
The analysis of biological samples is a complex and difficult task owing to two basic and complementary issues: the high complexity of most biological matrices and the need to determine minute quantities of active substances and contaminants in such complex sample. To succeed in this endeavor samples are usually subject to three steps of a comprehensive analytical methodological approach: sample preparation, analytes isolation (usually utilizing a chromatographic technique) and qualitative/quantitative analysis (usually with the aid of mass spectrometric tools). Owing to the complex nature of bio-samples, and the very low concentration of the target analytes to be determined, selective sample preparation techniques is mandatory in order to overcome the difficulties imposed by these two constraints. During the last decade new chemical synthesis approaches has been developed and optimized, such as sol-gel and molecularly imprinting technologies, allowing the preparation of novel materials for sample preparation including graphene and derivatives, magnetic materials, ionic liquids, molecularly imprinted polymers, and much more. In this contribution we will review these novel techniques and materials, as well as their application to the bioanalysis niche.