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Myrcia sylvatica essential oil in the diet of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) attenuates the stress response induced by high stocking density

Saccol, E.M.H., Parrado‐Sanabria, Y.A., Gagliardi, L., Jerez‐Cepa, I., Mourão, R.H.V., Heinzmann, B.M., Baldisserotto, B., Pavanato, M.A., Mancera, J.M., Martos‐Sitcha, J.A.
Aquaculture nutrition 2018 v.24 no.5 pp. 1381-1392
Myrcia, Sparus aurata, carbohydrate metabolism, cortisol, dietary supplements, energy, essential oils, fish, glycogen, growth performance, homeostasis, lactic acid, stocking rate, stress response, stress tolerance, triacylglycerols
The effects of diet supplemented with Myrcia sylvatica essential oil (EOMS) on growth and stress tolerance to different stocking densities were assessed in Sparus aurata. Initially, three experimental groups were established: (i) control, (ii) 1.0 and (iii) 2.0 ml EOMS/kg dry feed. After 90 days, nine fish per group were anaesthetized, weighed and sampled for metabolic analysis. The remaining fish were divided into two different conditions: low (LD—5 kg/m³) and high (HD—40 kg/m³) stocking densities, constituting a final experimental setup with six treatments. After 22 days, 10 individuals per treatment were anaesthetized and sampled for biochemical analysis. EOMS feeding for 90 days did not interfere with growth, although it was effective in reducing cortisol levels and the activation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The HD interfered in growth performance, increased the lactate levels in the control group, reducing also hepatic glycogen levels without dependence on diet supplementation. The 2.0 ml EOMS + LD group increased the growth parameters and decreased the cortisol and triglycerides levels. Additionally, metabolism adjustment was observed to provide energy during LD and HD conditions, indicating that diets supplemented with EOMS produce metabolic reorganization to maintain body homeostasis, suggesting its use as a beneficial supplement in fish.