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The strong reaction of simple phenolic acids during oxidative stress caused by nickel, cadmium and copper in the microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda

Strejckova, Aneta, Dvorak, Marek, Klejdus, Borivoj, Krystofova, Olga, Hedbavny, Josef, Adam, Vojtech, Huska, Dalibor
New biotechnology 2019 v.48 pp. 66-75
Scenedesmus quadricauda, antioxidants, biosynthesis, cadmium, cadmium chloride, copper, freshwater, glutathione, microalgae, nickel, oxidative stress, phenolic acids, phenylalanine, polyphenols, rosmarinic acid, tyrosine
This work has analysed the influence of CdCl2, NiCl2 and CuCl2 on simple phenolic acids, such as the 3PPP (phenylpyruvic, phenylacetic, and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic) and 2DR (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic and rosmarinic) phenolic acids for the first time and studied their interactions with antioxidant systems and the glutathione-ascorbate cycle in the freshwater green microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda. The compounds investigated are related to both the catabolic and anabolic pathways of l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine, the main molecules in the biosynthesis of polyphenols. The concentrations of the simple phenolic acids responded significantly to NiCl2, CdCl2 and CuCl2 at 5, 20 and 40 μM concentrations. The 3PPP phenolic acid concentrations after 24 h were always higher in metal-treated cells than in controls, while the 2DR concentrations were significantly lower in the metal-treated cells than the controls. The GSH/GSSG ratio was lower in all experimental groups treated with the selected metals (especially so at 40 μM). Pearson correlation analysis indicated a strong negative correlation between ascorbate and rosmarinic acid content (−0.670; p < 0.05) in NiCl2-treated samples and reduced glutathione and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic content (−0.700; p < 0.05) in CdCl2-treated samples. The GSSG content in samples exposed to CuCl2 was correlated with the concentrations of all of the investigated phenolic acids (4 negative, 1 positive).