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New insights into bacterial bile resistance mechanisms: the role of bile salt hydrolase and its impact on human health

Bustos, Ana Y., Font de Valdez, Graciela, Fadda, Silvina, Taranto, María P.
Food research international 2018 v.112 pp. 250-262
amino acids, antimicrobial properties, bacteria, bile, bile acids, bile resistance, biosynthesis, carbohydrates, cell membranes, cholesterol metabolism, choloylglycine hydrolase, defense mechanisms, dietary fat, emulsifying, energy, fatty acid metabolism, homeostasis, human health, inflammation, intestinal absorption, solubilization, stress response, transporters
Bile acids (BA), the major components of bile, are biological detergents that facilitate the emulsification and solubilization of dietary lipids and also display potent antimicrobial activity, the bacterial membranes being their main targets. Considering the complicated nature of the stress produced by bile and BA, the microorganism tolerance requires different defence mechanisms including the presence of efflux pumps, bile salt hydrolase (BSH) enzyme, the intrinsic capacity of cells to maintain intracellular homeostasis and modifications in the architecture and composition of the cell membrane. Besides, the expression of proteins involved in carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, amino acid and nitrogenous base biosynthesis, and general stress response are commonly affected by the presence of bile. Among the microbial transformations, deconjugation of BA by BSH is the most important. Several studies indicate that BSH activity affects both the host physiology and the microbiota. In fact, it was strongly suggested that BSH could play an important role in the colonization and survival of bacteria in the gut. Also, recent work has shown that BSH and free BA participate in a variety of metabolic processes that include regulation of dietary lipid absorption, cholesterol metabolism, and energy and inflammation homeostasis.In this review we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the tolerance of bacteria to bile, with special emphasis on the contributions of studies applying an omic approach. Besides, the physiological and ecological role of BSH enzyme and its relevance to human health as well as the function of bile acid as metabolic regulator are also discussed.