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Vitamin C in camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh]: evaluation of extraction and analytical methods

Cunha-Santos, Elenice Carla Emidio, Viganó, Juliane, Neves, Daniela Andrade, Martínez, Julian, Godoy, Helena Teixeira
Food research international 2019 v.115 pp. 160-166
Myrciaria dubia, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, foods, fruit peels, fruit pulp, fruits, high performance liquid chromatography, liquids, maceration, solvents, sulfuric acid, titration, ultra-performance liquid chromatography
Camu-camu, a typical Amazonian fruit, is known for the high vitamin C content of the peel and pulp. As vitamin C is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries, it is of interest to study new sources, extraction techniques, and analytical methods for the identification and quantification of this compound. Here, evaluation was made of extraction and quantification methods, as well as the differences in vitamin C content according to the origin and part of the camu-camu fruit. The extraction techniques studied were pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), acid extraction, and maceration. The analytical methods evaluated were titrimetry and chromatography. Camu-camu samples were obtained from different regions, and the peel and pulp were studied separately. Acid extraction using sulfuric acid as solvent provided the highest vitamin C yields, while PLE, as a completely clean technique, proved to be a promising alternative for the recovery of ascorbic acid (L-AA). The application of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography methodology (UHPLC-DAD) enabled the fast identification and quantification of L-AA and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), with high resolution, sensitivity, and specificity. The results obtained using the chromatographic and titration methods were not significantly different (p < 0.05), indicating that titrimetry is useful for routine analyses. L-AA and DHAA were found in the peel, but only L-AA was found in the pulp. The variation of vitamin C content among the lots could be explained by the edaphoclimatic conditions. The combination of a clean extraction technique and a fast analytical method is a promising approach for the determination of vitamin C in food products.