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Smokeless tobacco impacts oral microbiota in a Syrian Golden hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model

Jin, Jinshan, Guo, Lei, VonTungeln, Linda, Vanlandingham, Michelle, Cerniglia, Carl E., Chen, Huizhong
Anaerobe 2018 v.52 pp. 29-42
Acidaminococcus, Actinomyces, Anaerococcus, Arcanobacterium, Bacteroides, Cyanobacteria, DNA, Dialister, Eubacterium (genus), Granulicatella, Leptotrichia, Mesocricetus auratus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, animal models, bacterial communities, carcinogenesis, hamsters, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, metagenomics, microorganisms, mouth, periodontal diseases, ribosomal RNA, smokeless tobacco
The use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) can cause many serious health problems. The oral microbiota plays important roles in oral and systemic health, and the disruption in the oral microbial population is linked to periodontal disease and other health problems. To assess the impact of smokeless tobacco on oral microbiota in vivo, high-throughput sequencing was used to examine the oral microbiota present in Syrian Golden hamster cheek pouches. Sixteen hamsters were divided into four groups and treated with the STP Grizzly snuff (0, 2.5, 25, or 250 mg) twice daily for 4 weeks. After 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of treatment, bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from oral swabs sampled from the cheek pouches of the hamsters. The oral bacterial communities present in different hamster groups were characterized by sequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V2 and V4 of 16S rRNA using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Fifteen phyla, 27 classes, 59 orders, 123 families, and 250 genera were identified from 4,962,673 sequence reads from the cheek pouch samples. The bacterial diversity and taxonomic abundances for the different treatment groups were compared to the non–treated hamsters. Bacterial diversity was significantly decreased after 4 weeks of exposure to 2.5 mg, and significantly increased by exposure to 250 mg STP. Treatment with 250 mg STP significantly increased Firmicutes, transiently increased Cyanobacteria and TM7, and decreased Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria compared to the control group. At the genus level, 4 weeks of administration of 250 mg STP significantly increased Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Oribacterium, Anaerococcus, Acidaminococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Negativicoccus, and Staphylococcus, and decreased Bacteroides, Buleidia, Dialister, and Leptotrichia, and transiently decreased Arcanobacterium compared to the control group. For the first time, an animal model was used for evaluating the effects of STP on oral microbiota by metagenomic sequencing. Our results provide a view of the shift of the oral microbiota in response to STP exposure in Syrian Golden hamster. Our findings indicate that the use of smokeless tobacco significantly disrupts the oral microbiota.