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Shelter-housed cats show no evidence of faecal shedding of canine parvovirus DNA

Byrne, P., Beatty, J.A., Šlapeta, J., Corley, S.W., Lyons, R.E., McMichael, L., Kyaw-Tanner, M.T., Dung, P.T., Decaro, N., Meers, J., Barrs, V.R.
The veterinary journal 2018 v.239 pp. 54-58
Carnivore protoparvovirus 1, DNA, cats, confidence interval, cross-sectional studies, dogs, feces, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, viral shedding, Queensland, United Kingdom
Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are deoxyriboncucleic acid (DNA) viruses in the taxon Carnivore protoparvovirus 1. Exposure of cats to either CPV or FPV results in productive infection and faecal shedding of virus. Asymptomatic shedding of CPVs by one-third of shelter-housed cats in a UK study suggests that cats may be an important reservoir for parvoviral disease in dogs. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of faecal shedding of CPVs in asymptomatic shelter-housed cats in Australia. Faecal samples (n=218) were collected from cats housed in three shelters receiving both cats and dogs, in Queensland and NSW. Molecular testing for Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA sequencing of the VP2 region to differentiate CPV from FPV.Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 DNA was detected in only four (1.8%, 95% confidence interval 0.49–4.53%) faecal samples from a single shelter. Sequencing identified all four positive samples as FPV. Faecal shedding of CPV by shelter-cats was not detected in this study.While the potential for cross-species transmission of CPV between cats and dogs is high, this study found no evidence of a role for cats in maintaining CPV in cat and dog populations through faecal shedding in the regions tested.