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Upsurge and spread of G3 rotaviruses in Eastern India (2014–2016): Full genome analyses reveals heterogeneity within Wa-like genomic constellation
- Banerjee, Anindita, Lo, Mahadeb, Indwar, Pallavi, Deb, Alok K., Das, Santasabuj, Manna, Byomkesh, Dutta, Shanta, Bhadra, Uchhal K., Bhattacharya, Mala, Okamoto, Keinosuke, Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta
- Infection, genetics, and evolution 2018 v.63 pp. 158-174
- Rotavirus, childhood, children, diarrhea, disease surveillance, epitopes, feces, gastroenteritis, genomics, genotype, glycoproteins, glycosylation, humans, isoleucine, mutation, phylogeny, sequence analysis, threonine, vaccines, India
- Advent of new strains and shift in predominantly circulating genotypes are characteristics of group- A rotavirus (RVA), one of the major causes of childhood gastroenteritis. During diarrheal disease surveillance at Kolkata, India (2014–2016), a shift in circulating RVA strains from G1P to G3P was seen. Stool samples from children (n = 3048) with acute gastroenteritis were tested of which 38.7% were RVA positive. G1 was the predominant strain (65.3%) in 2014–2015 whereas in late 2015 and 2016, G3 became the preponderant strain (44.6%). In the past decade G3 strains were not observed in this region, we conducted whole genome sequencing of representative strains to gain insight into the phenomenon of emergence and genetic constellation of these circulating human G3 strains. The analyses revealed intergenogroup reassortment in G3P strains (among Wa and DS-1-like genogroup) whereas G3P strains were authentic Wa-like. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Kolkata G3 strains as polymorphic and thus they formed two sub-clusters due to antigenic differences in their VP7 protein. One of the sub-clusters had the wild-type threonine at 87 amino acid position while another sub-cluster had an isoleucine mutation. Presence of additional N-linked glycosylation site at amino acid 283 of VP7 glycoprotein suggests that the major neutralizing epitope on the VP7 (G3) of RotaTeq vaccine differs from the currently circulating G3 strains. The study is important as efficiency of rotavirus vaccine depends on the circulating heterogeneous genotype constellations. Continuous monitoring of circulating RVA strains in endemic settings like India is therefore important in pre- and post-vaccination period to monitor the emergence of new reassortant genotypes in addition to assessing vaccine efficacy.