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Saliva of hematophagous insects: a multifaceted toolkit
- Arcà, Bruno, Ribeiro, Josè MC
- Current opinion in insect science 2018 v.29 pp. 102-109
- complement, disease transmission, evolution, gene duplication, genes, genomics, hematophagous insects, mechanism of action, microRNA, proteins, proteomics, saliva, transcriptomics, vertebrates
- Transcriptomic, proteomic and genomic studies significantly improved our understanding of the complexity of blood feeding insect saliva providing unparalleled evolutionary insights. Salivary genes appeared to be under strong selective pressure with gene duplication and functional diversification being a powerful driver in the evolution of novel salivary genes/functions. The first insect salivary proteins responsible for complement inhibition were identified and a widespread mechanism of action shared by unrelated salivary protein families was recognized and named kratagonism. microRNAs were for the first time described in the saliva of a few blood feeding arthropods raising intriguing questions on their possible contribution to vertebrate host manipulation and pathogen transmission and further emphasizing how much we still have to learn on blood feeding insect saliva.