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α-Tetrasubstituted Aldehydes through Electronic and Strain-Controlled Branch-Selective Stereoselective Hydroformylation

Eshon, Josephine, Foarta, Floriana, Landis, Clark R., Schomaker, Jennifer M.
Journal of organic chemistry 2018 v.83 no.17 pp. 10207-10220
acrylates, aldehydes, alkenes, carbon monoxide, catalysts, chemical structure, diastereoselectivity, electronics, hydrogenation, ligands, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, organic chemistry, regioselectivity, rhodium
Hydroformylation utilizes dihydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a catalyst to transform alkenes into aldehydes. This work applies chiral bisdiazaphospholane (BDP)- and bisphospholanoethane-ligated rhodium complexes to the hydroformylation of a variety of alkenes to produce chiral tetrasubstituted aldehydes. 1,1′-Disubstituted acrylates bearing electron-withdrawing substituents undergo hydroformylation under mild conditions (1 mol % of catalyst/BDP ligand, 150 psig gas, 60 °C) with high conversions and yields of tetrasubstituted aldehydes (e.g., 13:1 regioselectivity, 85% ee, and <1% hydrogenation for 1-fluoromethyl acrylate). The scope also encompasses both acyclic 1,1′-disubstituted and trisubstituted, electron-poor alkenes as well as di- and trisubstituted alkenes composed of small rings with exocyclic and endocyclic unsaturation. For example, 1-methylene-β-lactam furnished the tetrasubstituted aldehyde with 98% selectivity and up to 83% ee. Notably, chiral trisubstituted bicyclic methyleneaziridines are transformed with >99% regioselectivity and >19:1 diastereoselectivity to tetrasubstituted aldehydes at rates >50 catalyst turnovers/hour. NMR studies of the noncatalytic reaction of HRh(BDP)(CO)₂ with methyl 1-fluoroacrylate enable interception of tertiary alkylrhodium intermediates, demonstrating migratory insertion to acyl species is slower than formation of secondary and primary alkylrhodium intermediates. Overall, these investigations reveal how the interplay of sterics, electronics, and ring strain are harnessed to provide access to valuable α-tetrasubstituted aldehyde synthetic building blocks by promoting branched-selective hydroformylation.